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Colloidal Gold, Silver and Platinum: Production and Usage

Learn all about the essential differences in the production of colloidal metals – using the example of colloidal gold in order to bring more clarity to the topic. Different terms are often used and properties described that are often difficult to understand. With the following information and criteria, we would like to offer an introduction to the very exciting topic of the production and application of colloidal solutions or dispersions.

 

We’ll take a closer look at the following topics:

  • Different processes for the preparation of ionic or colloidal solutions or dispersions
  • What are colloids, particle size, concentration, colour, shelf life, etc.
  • Influence of the manufacturing process on the properties and thus effects in the body
  • Fields of application and effects of gold, silver and platinum
  • Studies and articles on the respective metals
What are colloids and colloidal dispersions?
„Colloid“ or „colloidal“ refers to the second-smallest unit of elements after the atom. Colloids are the smallest possible form that an element can have without losing its properties. Colloids occur everywhere in nature. And thus also in our body – e.g. in the blood and lymph. Likewise, colloids of metals such as gold, silver, copper, platinum, etc. are present in our body and fulfil important tasks. However, they only occur in minute traces, which is why they are also called trace elements or ultra-trace elements.

The tiny amounts of catalytically highly active metals in the body have a very significant and central importance in metabolism, as these metals have a high lattice energy and/or catalytic activity. 

In this tiny form as a colloid, it becomes possible for the particles (e.g. gold, silver, platinum, etc.) to reach every single cell in our body in order to unfold there the manifold positive effects that have been known for thousands of years. Colloid particles float, do not settle and are excreted again. Due to the colloid particle size of a few nanometres (1 to 20 nm with high-voltage plasma production), they also reach sensitive and particularly protected areas such as the brain.

For this reason, the quality of the colloids, influenced by water quality, starting material, manufacturing process and storage, plays a particularly important role. 

Different processes for the preparation of ionic solutions and colloidal dispersions:

Chemical preparation: colloidal dispersion (for gold)

  • Colloid production by dissolving the gold with acids

Electrolytic production: ionic solution

  • Electrolysis in the range 9 to 60 volts („silver generators“)
  • High-voltage electrolysis process up to 10,000 volts

High-voltage plasma production: pure colloidal dispersion

  • Voltages up to 10,000 volts: colloid generation by means of plasma

So far, mainly so-called silver generators (direct current electrolysis with 9-60 volts) have been used for the production of ionic silver or other metals for home use and in the semi-professional sector. The more complex technology with the high-voltage plasma process is usually only used by professional suppliers with high-quality technology and a deeper understanding of the chemical, physical and physiological relationships.

Conclusion: Cheaper processes such as chemical production (often relabelled as electrolysis because otherwise no one would buy it) or low-voltage electrolysis are not a suitable production process due to the high lattice energy, especially for gold or platinum colloid production. With the high-voltage plasma process, the best possible quality of colloids is achieved under economic conditions (smallest particles, highest particle charge, long shelf life, suspended state) if the production process is correct.

Water quality and characteristics for the production of ionic solutions or colloidal dispersions:

The right water for colloid production

For colloid production, only osmosis-filtered water with subsequent double steam distillation (double distilled) with < 0.5 μS should be used, as this is the only way to remove all substances from the water. Only steam distillation is not sufficient, as substances such as benzenes, chlorine or chlorine degradation products have a lower boiling point than water and would thus already be collected in the collection container before the boiling point of the water and thus contaminate the distilled water.

In electrolytic production, residues and substances in the water could form direct compounds with the ions and produce compounds that are harmful to health, as ions are very reactive.

In the high-voltage plasma process, residual substances would prevent plasma generation because the electricity would flow directly through the water, which would prevent the plasma from forming.

Differences between ionic solution, colloidal solution and colloidal dispersion:

Ionic solution and colloidal solution

Ions detach from the electrode material through electrolysis and form a compound with the water. Due to the low energy, this is still possible with silver, but no longer practicable with gold and platinum due to the high lattice energy (solid structure). E.g. gold production 1-2ppm / day (24 hours) is possible!

Colloidal Dispersion

Gold, silver or platinum colloids are dissolved out of the electrode material by evaporation in a 3,000 to 4,000 degree hot plasma and abruptly cooled (condensed) in water. The highly energetic and electrically charged tiny colloids float in water without forming a bond with water and constantly release ions, for days and weeks directly at the site of the event.

Properties of colloids: concentration, particle size, particle energy, colour, durability

Concentration in ppm or mg/l

The offer on the internet is huge and various concentrations are advertised. Mostly, the concentration is given in ppm (parts per million) or mg/l (milligrams per litre). However, the idea that „a lot helps a lot“ is deceptive here, because a high concentration and the smallest colloids are mutually exclusive: The higher the concentration, the more and larger clusters form, which significantly reduce effectiveness and bioavailability. Concentrations of 5 to 10 ppm are optimal, have the smallest possible particle size and highest energetic charge.

The data in ppm can be equated with mg/l: 10 ppm correspond to approx. 10 mg/l.

The higher the concentration, the larger the particles or clusters: 5 to 10 ppm are very effective in their impact. The risk of clustering increases with higher concentrations, which means that the larger particles are then no longer as effective and cell-permeable or bioavailable. Especially in the high-voltage plasma process, the particles are very small (1 to 20 nm) and have a very high particle energy, because the high energy (10,000 volts and temperatures between 3,000 and 4,000 degrees Celsius as plasma) needed to dissolve out of the metal (lattice energy) is partly transferred to the resulting colloid particles. It is therefore better to take 10 ppm twice as silver colloid than 20 or even 50 ppm once.

The Colour

The lower the concentration, the clearer the liquid. From a concentration of more than 3 ppm, a slight colouration appears. With laser light, the colloids can be made visible because the tiny particles scatter and reflect the light. The more particles, the better and stronger the laser light is visible in the water.

Silver: From clear to yellowish to yellowish-brown, the colour can change with increasing particle concentration.

Gold: From clear to pale purple or pink to darker purple towards black, the colour can change with increasing particle concentration.

Platinum: From clear to slightly grey. The higher the concentration, the stronger the grey discolouration and the stronger the clustering (several particles form larger clusters).

Applications and effects of colloidal gold

What does colloidal gold do?

  • Improves regulation
  • Optimises repair processes and wound healing
  • Accelerates recovery and regeneration
  • Increases energy levels
  • Increases intelligence (IQ by 20 % according to studies)
  • Calms and promotes relaxation (when rest is needed)
  • Activates and enhances performance (when performance is needed)
  • Regulates antioxidant processes (protects against excessive oxygen radicals)
  • Accelerates healing processes
  • Brings inflammatory processes to an end more quickly (final phase of biologically meaningful repair processes)
  • Increases production of happiness hormones
  • Has a mood-lifting and rejuvenating effect
  • Optimises cell renewal processes
  • Supports and promotes detoxification processes
  • Leads to better sleep patterns
  • Optimises intracellular cell communication
  • Improves communication between cells in general
  • Significantly improves communication within our DNA
  • Balances our autonomic nervous system (VNS)
  • Activates the glands and hormone production
  • Improves blood circulation
  • Increases (self-)awareness
  • Improves motor and coordination skills
  • Increases intuition and perception
  • Accelerates wound healing

Colloidal gold is also used within classical medicine for the following „diseases“:

  • Addictions (alcohol, nicotine, drugs)
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Allergies
  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Anxiety
  • Adiposity (Obesity)
  • Burns
  • „Cancer“, see biol. conflicts / germ leaf-specific tissue reactions
  • Cardiovascular problems
  • Coordination problems
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Dementia
  • Digestive problems
  • Depression
  • Energy weakness
  • Glandular diseases (thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, pineal, testicular, ovary, pancreatic islet cells, etc.)
  • Joint diseases, rheumatism
  • Hot flushes (menopause)
  • Mood swings
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Nervous disorders
  • Night sweats
  • Skin diseases (irritations, neurodermatitis)
  • Sleep disorders
  • „Viral diseases“, see so far unproven scientific evidence of viruses (Reinisolation & Koch’s postulates)
Applications and effects of colloidal silver

Colloidal silver: Applications

  • Colds
  • Flu symptoms
  • Open wounds
  • Inflammations (internal and external)
  • Skin diseases
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Joint pain, rheumatism
  • Bad breath
  • Fungal infections
  • Acne and impure skin
  • Neurodermatitis
  • Psoriasis
  • Warts
  • Herpes
  • Open cuts
  • Abrasions
  • Burns
  • Insect bites and stings
  • Athlete’s foot
Use and ingestion of colloidal dispersions:

Ingestion of colloidal solutions (high-voltage plasma method)

Especially at low concentrations (5-10 ppm) and small particle size (< 20 nm), colloidal dispersion has proven to be very effective, as the energy content of the colloids is the highest and can therefore last and act the longest.

It is optimal to keep the colloidal solution in the mouth for 1-3 minutes so that the particles can migrate directly into the blood via the oral mucosa. Due to the electrical charge, a plastic or wooden spoon should be used – never use a metal spoon! A shot glass is also very suitable.

Adults: 1 x daily 30 ml (2 tablespoons à 15 ml)

Children: 1 x daily 15 ml (1 tablespoon à 15 ml)

Infants:1 x daily 3-10 ml (1-2 teaspoon à 5 ml)

External application: The optimal application is to spray the affected area with a spray bottle.

Studies and articles on colloidal silver:

Study overview and articles on the topic of colloidal silver

  • Pies, Dr. Josef (2012): Immun mit kolloidalem Silber. Wirkung, Anwendung, Erfahrungen. 18. Auflage 2012. VAK Verlags GmbH, Kirchzarten bei Freiburg. S. 49-55. 
  • Wagner, Hans (2010): Kolloidales Silber. Der natürliche Ersatz für Antibiotika richtig angewendet. 1. Aufl. [S.l.]: Südwest Verlag. 
  • Wagner, Hans (2010): Kolloidales Silber. Der natürliche Ersatz für Antibiotika richtig angewendet. 1. Aufl. [S.l.]: Südwest Verlag. 
  • Boucher, W.; Stern, J. M.; Kotsinyan, V.; Kempuraj, D.; Papaliodis, D.; Cohen, M. S.; Theoharides, T. C. (2008): Intravesical nanocrystalline silver decreases experimental bladder inflammation. In: The Journal of urology 179 (4), S. 1598–1602. DOI: 10.1016/ j.juro.2007.11.037. 
  • Tutaj, Krzysztof; Szlazak, Radoslaw; Szalapata, Katarzyna; Starzyk, Joanna; Luchowski, Rafal; Grudzinski, Wojciech et al. (2016): Amphotericin B-silver hybrid nanoparticles. Synthesis, properties and antifungal activity. In: Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 12 (4), S. 1095–1103. DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2015.12.378. 
  • Ngo, Huy X.; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie; Green, Keith D. (2016): A complex game of hide and seek. The search for new antifungals. In: MedChemComm 7 (7), S. 1285–1306. DOI: 10.1039/C6MD00222F. 
  • Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Salari, Samira; Hadizadeh, Sanaz (2015): Evaluation of Antifungal Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Against Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. In: Iranian journal of biotechnology 13 (4), S. 38–42. DOI: 10.15171/ijb.1302. 
  • Scott, John R.; Krishnan, Rohin; Rotenberg, Brian W.; Sowerby, Leigh J. (2017): The effectiveness of topical colloidal silver in recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis. A randomized crossover control trial. In: Journal of otolaryngology – head & neck surgery = Le Journal d’oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale 46 (1), S. 64. DOI: 10.1186/ s40463-017-0241-z. 
  • Choudhary, Samiksha; Burnham, Lorrie; Thompson, Jeffrey M.; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav (2013): Role of Filopodia in HSV-1 Entry into Zebrafish 3-O-Sulfotransferase-3- Expressing Cells. In: The open virology journal 7, S. 41–48. DOI: 10.2174/1874357901307010041. 
  • Morones-Ramirez, J. Ruben; Winkler, Jonathan A.; Spina, Catherine S.; Collins, James J. (2013): Silver enhances antibiotic activity against gram-negative bacteria. In: Science translational medicine 5 (190), 190ra81. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3006276. 
  • Doudi, Monir; Naghsh, Nooshin; Setorki, Mahbubeh (2013): Comparison of the effects of silver nanoparticles on pathogenic bacteria resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics (ESBLs) as a prokaryote model and Wistar rats as a eukaryote model. In: Medical science monitor basic research 19, S. 103–110. DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.883835. 
  • Naqvi, Syed Zeeshan Haider; Kiran, Urooj; Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Jamal, Asif; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia; Ali, Naeem (2013): Combined efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and different antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria. In: International journal of nanomedicine 8, S. 3187–3195. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S49284. 
  • AN EPITOME OF CURRENT MEDICAL LITERATURE (1908). In: British Medical Journal 2 (2480), E5-8. PMCID: PMC2436976. 
  • Baral, V. R.; Dewar, A. L.; Connett, G. J. (2008): Colloidal silver for lung disease in cystic fibrosis. In: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 101 (Suppl 1), S. 51–52. DOI: 10.1258/jrsm.2008.s18012. 
  • Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J. (2015): The elements of life and medicines. In: Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences 373 (2037). DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0182. 
  • Ge, Liangpeng; Li, Qingtao; Wang, Meng; Ouyang, Jun; Li, Xiaojian; Xing, Malcolm M. Q. (2014): Nanosilver particles in medical applications. Synthesis, performance, and toxicity. In: International journal of nanomedicine 9, S. 2399–2407. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S55015. 
  • Griffith, May; Islam, Mohammad M.; Edin, Joel; Papapavlou, Georgia; Buznyk, Oleksiy; Patra, Hirak K. (2016): The Quest for Anti-inflammatory and Anti-infective Biomaterials in Clinical Translation. In: Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology 4, S. 71. DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2016.00071. 
  • Zhang, Xi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Guo; Shen, Wei; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi (2016): Silver Nanoparticles. Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches. In: International journal of molecular sciences 17 (9). DOI: 10.3390/ ijms17091534. 
  • Bhol, K. C.; Schechter, P. J. (2005): Topical nanocrystalline silver cream suppresses inflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells in a murine model of allergic contact dermatitis. In: The British journal of dermatology 152 (6), S. 1235–1242. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06575.x. 
  • Shin, Seung-Heon; Ye, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hae-Sic; Kang, Hyung-Suk (2007): The effects of nano-silver on the proliferation and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In: International immunopharmacology 7 (13), S. 1813–1818. DOI: 10.1016/ j.intimp.2007.08.025. 
  • Sevgi, Mert; Toklu, Ani; Vecchio, Daniela; Hamblin, Michael R. (2013): Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Infections – An Update. In: Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery 8 (3), S. 161–197. PMCID: PMC4018441. 
  • Franco-Molina, Moises; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Sierra-Rivera, Crystel; Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Castillo-Tello, Paloma et al. (2010): Antitumor activity of colloidal silver on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In: Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR 29. DOI: 10.1186/1756-9966-29-148. 
  • Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Jeyaraj, Muniyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi (2013): Cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. In: BioMed research international 2013, S. 535796. DOI: 10.1155/2013/535796. 
  • Mukherjee, Sudip; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kotcherlakota, Rajesh; Patra, Sujata; B, Vinothkumar; Bhadra, Manika Pal et al. (2014): Potential theranostics application of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (4-in-1 system). In: Theranostics 4 (3), S. 316–335. DOI: 10.7150/thno.7819. 
  • Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; John, Priscilla A.; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam (2013): Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki. A potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells. In: International journal of nanomedicine 8, S. 4399–4413. DOI: 10.2147/ IJN.S51881. 
  • Qiao, Yue; Ma, Fei; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Bo; Wei, Qiaolin; Li, Wanlin et al. (2018): Near Infrared Laser-Excited Nanoparticles To Eradicate Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Promote Wound Healing. In: ACS applied materials & interfaces 10 (1), S. 193–206. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b15251. 
  • Chai, Shi-Hong; Wang, Yating; Qiao, Yinghong; Wang, Pei; Li, Qiang; Xia, Chaofeng; Ju, Man (2018): Bio fabrication of silver nanoparticles as an effective wound healing agent in the wound care after anorectal surgery. In: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology 178, S. 457–462. DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2017.10.024. 
  • Kim, Min Hee; Park, Hanna; Nam, Hyung Chan; Park, Se Ra; Jung, Ju-Young; Park, Won Ho (2018): Injectable methylcellulose hydrogel containing silver oxide nanoparticles for burn wound healing. In: Carbohydrate polymers 181, S. 579–586. DOI: 10.1016/ j.carbpol.2017.11.109. 
  • Moeller, Keith: American Biotech Lab’s. Nano-Silver Proven Safe For Humans. Verfügbar als PDF-Datei. 
  • Samberg, Meghan E.; Oldenburg, Steven J.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A. (2010): Evaluation of silver nanoparticle toxicity in skin in vivo and keratinocytes in vitro. In: Environmental health perspectives 118 (3), S. 407–413. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0901398. 
  • Arora, S.; Jain, J.; Rajwade, J. M.; Paknikar, K. M. (2008): Cellular responses induced by silver nanoparticles. In vitro studies. In: Toxicology letters 179 (2), S. 93–100. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.04.009. 
  • Thompson, Ruth; Elliott, Vanessa; Mondry, Adrian (2009): Argyria. Permanent skin discoloration following protracted colloid silver ingestion. In: BMJ case reports 2009. DOI: 10.1136/bcr.08.2008.0606. 
  • Lencastre, André; Lobo, Maria; João, Alexandre (2013): Argyria — case report. In: Anais brasileiros de dermatologia 88 (3), S. 413–416. DOI: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20131864. 
  • Jung, Inha; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Suh, Byung Seong; Ham, Cheol-Bae; Han, Ji-Min; Kim, You Gyung et al. (2017): A case of generalized argyria presenting with muscle weakness. In: Annals of occupational and environmental medicine 29, S. 45. DOI: 10.1186/ s40557-017-0201-0. 
  • Molina-Hernandez, Alma Ileana; Diaz-Gonzalez, Jose Manuel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Dominguez-Cherit, Judith (2015): Argyria after Silver Nitrate Intake. Case Report and Brief Review of Literature. In: Indian journal of dermatology 60 (5), S. 520. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5154.164427. 
  • Wadhera, Akhil; Fung, Max (2005): Systemic argyria associated with ingestion of colloidal silver. In: Dermatology online journal 11 (1), S. 12. PMID: 15748553. 
  • Pala, Gianni; Fronterr&eacute; Aldo; Scafa, Fabrizio; Scelsi, Mario; Ceccuzzi, Roberto et al. (2008): Ocular Argyrosis in a Silver Craftsman. In: Journal of Occupational Health 50 (6), S. 521–524. DOI: 10.1539/joh.N8001. 
  • Lansdown, Alan B. G. (2006): Silver in health care. Antimicrobial effects and safety in use. In: Current problems in dermatology 33, S. 17–34. DOI: 10.1159/000093928. 
  • Intitut Katharos: Citations scientifiques argent colloïdal. Verfügbar auf der Seite des Instituts Katharos. 
  • Barwick, Steve: Pets and Colloidal Silver. 
  • Kühni, Werner (2012): Heilen mit dem Zeolith-Mineral Klinoptilolith. Ein praktischer Ratgeber. Aarau: AT Verlag AZ Fachverlage. Leseprobe vom Narayana Verlag, Kandern. S. 61-62. 
  • Mihálik, Peter (1950): METHODS OF IMPREGNATING NEUROFIBRILLAR SUBSTANCE ON SLIDES AFTER IMBEDDING. In: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 13 (2), S. 146–152. PMCID: PMC497146. 
  • Munger, Mark A.; Radwanski, Przemyslaw; Hadlock, Greg C.; Stoddard, Greg; Shaaban, Akram; Falconer, Jonathan et al. (2014): In vivo human time-exposure study of orally dosed commercial silver nanoparticles. In: Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 10 (1), S. 1–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2013.06.010.
Studies and articles on colloidal gold:

Study overview and articles on the topic of colloidal gold

Effect of Colloidal Metallic Gold on Cognitive Functions: A Pilot Study Guy E. Abraham, MD; Souhaila A. McReynolds; Joel S. Dill, PhD Optimox Corporation, Torrance, California

Zusammenfassung: Um die Wirkung von kolloidalem metallischem Gold auf die kognitiven Funktionen zu bewerten, wurde die revidierte Wechsler-Intelligenz-Skalen-Testbatterie (WAIS-R) an 5 Probanden im Alter von 15 bis 45 Jahren vor, nach 4 Wochen auf kolloidalem Gold bei 30 mg/Tag und erneut 1 bis 3 Monate nach Absetzen des Goldpräparats durchgeführt. Die WAIS-R-Gesamtscores (I.Q) wurden berechnet, indem die Summe der verbalen Testscores zur Summe der Performance-Scores addiert wurde. Nach 4 Wochen mit kolloidalem Gold gab es eine 20%ige Steigerung der I.Q-Scores mit einem Mittelwert + SE von 112,8 + 2,3 vor Gold und 137 + 3,8, nach Gold (p <0,005). Sowohl die Leistungs- als auch die verbalen Testwerte trugen gleichermaßen zu diesem Anstieg der I.Q-Scores bei. Der Effekt des kolloidalen Goldes hielt bei drei Probanden nach ein- bis zweimonatigem Absetzen des Goldes an, während bei zwei Probanden, die die Tests drei Monate nach Absetzen des Goldes durchführten, die IQ-Werte auf das Ausgangsniveau zurückgingen.

Abstract
In order to evaluate the effect of colloidal metallic gold on cognitive functions, the revised Wechsler Intelligence scales battery of tests (WAIS-R) was administered to 5 subjects aged 15 to 45 years, before, after 4 weeks on colloidal gold at 30 mg/day and again 1 to 3 months off the gold preparation. The WAIS-R total scores (I.Q) were calculated by adding the sum of the verbal test scores to the sum of the performance scores. After 4 weeks on colloidal gold, there was a 20% increase in I.Q scores with mean + SE of 112.8 + 2.3 pre gold and 137 + 3.8, post gold (p <0.005). Both the performance and verbal test scores contributed equally to this increase in I.Q scores. The effect of the colloidal gold persisted in 3 subjects after 1 to 2 month off gold, where as in 2 subjects who took the tests 3 months after stopping the gold , I.Q scores were down to baseline levels.

Introduction
It is generally accepted that intelligence or cognitive functioning is the sum of many mental capacities. For this reason, tests that were developed to measure intelligence quotient (I.Q) comprised a series of subtests evaluating the several dimensions of intelligence. Of the several I.Q tests available, educators have found that the Full Scale I.Q score of the Wechsler intelligence scales (WIS) battery, which is calculated from the sum of the individual scores of 11 tests, (6 verbal and 5 performance tests) is an excellent predictor of academic achievement.1 The revised version of this I.Q test (WAIS-R) has been used extensively to assess the effect of deficiencies and supplementation of specific nutrients 2,3 and the effects of sex, race, age and education4-7 on mental performance. Gold is a precious metal which belongs to the transition group I in the periodic table and exists in nature in two basic forms: metallic gold and gold salts. Metallic gold is non-toxic, used extensively in dentistry and is widely available in colloidal form as a nutritional supplement for human consumption. One of us (GEA) has observed a significant subjective improvement of mental performance in 21 adult subjects after ingestion of a preparation of colloidal metallic gold (Aurasol®) for 3 to 9 months at a daily dosage of 15 mg of gold (unpublished). In order to use an objective and more standardized approach in evaluating the effect of colloidal gold on mental performance, the WAIS-R battery of tests7 was performed on 5 subjects (4 females, 1 male) age 15-45 years, before, during and after the ingestion of the same colloidal gold preparation at 30 mg/day. The results suggest that colloidal gold at 30 mg/day improved significantly the I.Q scores after only one month of administration.

Materials and Methods
Aqueous dispersion of colloidal metallic gold was prepared by a modification of the citrate reduction method of Frens. The concentration of gold in this preparation (Aurasol® ) was 30 mg per ounce of fluid.Five subjects were recruited for this study ( 4 females and 1 male) with ages ranging from 15 to 45 years. The subjects were evaluated using the WAIS-R procedure.7 Verbal scores, performance scores and total scores (I.Q) for each subject were calculated. The WAIS-R battery was performed on each subject before gold administration, after ingesting 30 mg of colloidal gold daily for one month, and again after being off the gold preparation for 1 to 3 months. The statistical significance of the data was assessed by Student’s paired t test.9

Results
The group of tests called verbal are non-learning and therefore is not influenced significantly by repetition. The performance tests can be learned with repetition and this should be taken into consideration when evaluating the results displayed in Table I. The mean scores + standard error (SE) were respectively for pre- and post-gold administration: verbal 61.4 + 2.4 and 75.4 + 4.5 (p<0.005); performance 51.4 + 0.83 and 61.6 + 1.9 (p<0.01); total scores (IQ) 112.8 + 2.3 and 137 + 3.8 (p<0.005). Since both the verbal (non-learning and performance (learning) scores contributed equally to the increased values observed in the total IQ scores following colloidal gold, the positive effect of colloidal gold cannot be attributed solely to learning the correct responses on the second test due to repetition.

It is of interest to note that in two subjects (#1 and #2) who repeated the battery 3 months after stopping colloidal gold, the total IQ scores were close to baseline pre-gold levels whereas, in 2 subjects who performed the test 1 month after stopping the gold, (#3 and #5) and in one subject (#4) who did so after 2 months off colloidal gold, the total IQ scores were still elevated above baseline, suggesting that the effect of the gold on mental performance has a carry-over of one to two months after stopping the use of this preparation.

Discussion
The WIS battery of tests is an excellent predictor of scholastic performance.1 In fact, according to Lezak,10 the average scores on a WIS battery provide just about as much information as do average scores on a school report card. We have observed a significant increase (20%) of the mean IQ scores in 5 subjects aged 15 to 45 years after only one month on oral colloidal metallic gold at 30 mg/day. This effect persisted for up to 2 months following discontinuation of the gold preparation. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the effect of colloidal gold on mental performance. Possible mechanisms of action of the colloidal gold preparation are only speculative at this time. However, the potential applications of a non-toxic colloidal metal with marked and rapid positive effect on mental performance are without question of great practical value, not only in scholastic performance but also in the workplace.

The encouraging results of this pilot study warrant further evaluation of colloidal metallic gold in a larger number of subjects of different age groups. Testing various amounts of gold would assist in quantifying the response of the IQ tests in term of cumulative amount of gold ingested in order to investigate a possible dose-response relationship. Using the smallest amount of colloidal gold that results in a desirable effect on mental performance and scholastic achievement would keep the cost of such a program as low as possible.

References

  1. Lezak, M.D., In: Neuropsychological Assessment. New York, Oxford University Press; 1995:690.
  2. Goodwin, J.S., Goodwin, J.M., Garry, P.J. Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. J Amer. Med. Assoc., 1983; 249:2917-2921.
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Colloidal Gold in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Peter B. Himmel, Jorge D. Flechas, Guy E. Abraham

Gold salts (aurothiolates) once the primary therapy for active RA has in recent years declined in its use because of apparent lack of long term efficacy, toxic side effects, and delayed onset of action. One of us (GEA) postulated that the active ingredient in aurothiolates is colloidal gold generated by in vivo disproportionation with subsequent clustering of monoatomic gold, and that the side effects were due to the aurothiolates themselves and the trivalent cationic gold generated from the disproportionation. If this postulate is valid one would expect colloidal gold to have therapeutic effects in RA and devoid of side effects.

Methods:
10 patients (6 female, 4 male; average age 50 +/- 3.16 (SE) with long standing erosive RA ( 9 of 10 seropositive) were given an oral dose of 30 to 60 mg a day of colloidal gold (Aurasol-tm) for a period of 1 month. Clinical exams were performed weekly and laboratory studies done on weeks 1, 2, 4. Gold toxicity was evaluated by questioning the patient as to pruritus, rashes, oral ulcers, metallic taste, GI disturbance. The blood was checked for a drop in WBC, Hb, platelet count, BUN, creatinine or eosinophil elevation; and urine for proteinuria. Efficacy was evaluated by an 86 Joint Count Index scoring for joint tenderness and swelling: AM stiffness; the Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQII) by T. Pincus and an ESR.

Results:
Statistically significant improvement were found on each weekly exam for joint tenderness and swelling beginning with the first week 58.8 to 18.2 (p<0.01) for tenderness; 42.5 to 15.9 (p<0.01) for swelling. Joint swelling reduced further to a value of 13.0 (p<0.001) by week 4. Patients fatigue decreased from 5.32 to 3.35 (p<0.05) over the month and a feeling of satisfaction in ones ability to do activities was apparent after 1 week, 3.1 to 2.5 (p<0.01) and persisted. No laboratory tests indicative of gold toxicity were noted. One patient reported 2 chancre sores which cleared while on therapy, 8 of 10 patients responded to colloidal gold.

Zusammenfassung:
In dieser Pilotstudie wurde festgestellt, dass kolloidales Gold (Aurasol-tm) schnell wirkt (innerhalb einer Woche), indem es die Empfindlichkeit und Schwellung der Gelenke reduziert, ohne Nebenwirkungen, das Gefühl der Zufriedenheit in der Fähigkeit, Aktivitäten auszuführen, verbessert und die Müdigkeit bei 8 von 10 Patienten mit lang anhaltender erosiver RA reduziert. Die Studie wird für ein Jahr fortgesetzt. Es sollen nun weitere definitive kontrollierte Studien mit kolloidalem Gold durchgeführt werden.

Conclusion:
In this pilot study colloidal gold (Aurasol-tm) was found to be rapid acting (within one week) by reducing joint tenderness and swelling, without side effects, improved ones feeling of satisfaction in the ability to perform activities and reduce fatigue in 8 out of 10 patients with long standing erosive RA. The study will continue for one year. More definitive controlled trials should now be undertaken with colloidal gold.

Note:
The study has now completed its eighth month with all ten of the original patients still enrolled. The patients continue to do well with no significant side effects noted. This data is being compiled to be submitted for publication.

Anti-glycation Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Collagen
Ji-hoon Kim, Chung-Oui Hong, Yun-chang Koo, Hee-Don Choi, Kwang-Won Lee February 2012: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 35(2):260-4 DOI: 10.1248/bpb.35.260
Source: PubMed

Abstract
Gold-Nanopartikeln (GNPs) wird eine Vielzahl von biologischen Effekten zugeschrieben, darunter entzündungshemmende und antioxidative Aktivitäten. Das Ausmaß einer in vitro Glykationsreaktionsmischung aus Kollagen und Glykolaldehyd wurde untersucht, um die Hemmung der Bildung von Glykolaldehyd-abgeleiteten fortgeschrittenen Glykationsendprodukten (Glykol-AGEs) mit GNPs in Kollagen zu untersuchen, das ein Hauptproteinbestandteil der menschlichen Dermis ist. GNP-behandeltes Kollagen zeigte signifikant weniger Glykation (56,3±4,2%) als eine unbehandelte Glykationskontrolle. Darüber hinaus verringerte die GNP-behandelte Glykation in einem Kollagen-Gittermodell signifikant die AGEs-Verteilung im Modellsystem. Zusammengenommen deuten diese Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass GNPs das Potenzial haben, bei der Prävention der Glykations-induzierten Hautalterung eingesetzt zu werden.

Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. The extent of an in vitro glycation reaction mixture of collagen and glycolaldehyde was assayed to investigate the inhibition of glycolaldehye-derived advanced glycation end products (glycol-AGEs) formation with GNPs in collagen, which is a major protein component of the human dermis. GNP-treated collagen showed significantly less glycation (56.3±4.2%) than an untreated glycation control. Moreover, GNP-treated glycation in a collagen lattice model significantly decreased the AGEs distribution in the model system. Taken together, these results suggest that GNPs have the potential for use in the prevention of glycation-induced skin aging.

Side effects:

Side effects when taking colloidal gold, silver and platinum

When professionally produced, no side effects have been known so far when taking colloidal gold, silver or platinum. The best possible production method is the high-voltage plasma process: smallest particle size, highest energy content and long shelf life.

Caution: When ionic silver is produced with water that is not absolutely pure (osmosis-filtered water followed by double distillation), toxic silver compounds may be formed because the silver ions are very reactive and form direct compounds with other substances! When talking about side effects of silver, it invariably concerns ionic manufacturing processes by electrolysis and water that is not absolutely pure!